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A hangsúly minden szóban jelezve félkövér nyomtatással aláhúzva

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 Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into substances that cells can absorb and use.
There is two kinds of digestion - mechanical and chemical.
Mechanical digestion is the process of chewing, mashing, and breaking food into smaller pieces.
 Chemical digestion is the process of changing food into simpler substances through the action of  enzymes.  
zymes are proteins that speed up the chemical breakdown of complex substances.


 A hangsúly minden szóban jelezve félkövér nyomtatással aláhúzva

Septic arthritis is an infection within a joint space.

 It occurs more commonly in children than in adults, and the frequency is greater in infants and toddlers than in older children.

Half of all cases occur in the first 2 years of life, and three-fourths of all cases are in children younger than 5 years.

For unknown reasons, males are more frequently affected than females.

The infection involves a joint of the lower extremity in 75 percent of the cases, with the knee and hip being the most frequently involved joints.



 A hangsúly csak a magyartól eltérően, nem az első szótagon van jelezve félkövér nyomtatással aláhúzva

  Benefits, risks and limitations of mammograms

 One of the greatest benefits of mammograms is that they can identify cancerous breast tissue in its earliest stages.

A small lump can be removed more easily than a larger lump — for example through a lumpectomy procedure — and the chances are greater that you'll live disease-free.

A large lump might require a mastectomy to remove it, and the risk of the cancer spreading to other parts of your body increases.

Mammography is not foolproof.

Although mammography has reduced the number of breast cancer deaths in women between ages 40 and 69, this method of screening still has its limitations.

The accuracy of the procedure depends in part on the quality of the film and the experience and skill of the radiologist.

Other factors — such as your age and breast density — also can lead to inaccuracies in interpretation of the test.

 This may result in false-negative or false-positive mammograms.

 For instance, mammograms of younger women, whose breasts contain more glands and ligaments than do those of older women, can be more difficult to interpret.

 With age, breast tissue becomes fattier and has fewer glands, making it easier to interpret the mammograms to detect abnormal changes.




 Bulimia is recurrent binge eating of  over 1200 calories in 1 sitting (usually high carbohydrate items, eg*, cookies)

 Typical binge eating occurs 2 times per week for 3 mo; eating alone; secret eating habit; later onset than anorexia; extreme concern with weight and shape.

 It may become a  habit, skipping meals leads to hunger and binging, most bulimics have normal weight.

They have borderline personality; affective instability; impulse-control disorder; socially outgoing; comorbid substance abuse common.

The cycle of binge eating

1) low self-esteem; overconcern about shape and weight;

2) dieting leads to hunger, resulting in binge eating;

3) compensatory purging with vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics.


*  e.g.  exempli gratia   for instance  például

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Suppose you are  caring for Jennifer Drum, 29, who was admitted earlier today with left lower lobe pneumonia, as shown on X-ray.

 She has a history of asthma, type 1 diabetes, and recurrent ear infections.

Her SpO 2 is 94% on 2 L/minute of oxygen via nasal cannula and she's receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics pending the results of a sputum culture and sensitivity test.

When she arrives in your medical unit, Ms. Drum has a respiratory rate of 28 breaths/minute, BP of 90/50.

Her  heart rate is 98 beats/minute, and temperature of 100.87 °F (38.27 °C).

 Her skin is warm and flushed.

Because of her infection and her chronic illnesses, Ms. Drum is at high risk for sepsis.

Do you know how to intervene if this crisis develops?

In this article, we'll discuss your role in caring for a patient with sepsis using Ms. Drum's case as an example.

But first, let's review how sepsis evolves.

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        Dental text

A 38-year-old female presented for evaluation of pain in her upper left first molar. 

She reported the pain started one year earlier right after the tooth “exploded” while chewing a piece of toast.

The tooth was endodontically treated by her dentist, but the pain did not stop and spread to the entire zygoma and the left side of the neck below the ear.

The pain was described as continuous and dull, occasionally throbbing.

 It was exacerbated by warmth such as sitting beside the fireplace or staying in the sun.

 It was typically absent during sleep but resumed about one hour after awakening.

Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen and diclofenac reduced but did not eliminate the pain.

The patient was previously treated for anxiety with alprazolam but that treatment did not affect the pain.

A clinical examination revealed the following: malocclusion (loss of vertical dimension of occlusion; mandibular midline shift to the left).

There was also  tenderness on palpation of the left masseter and right lateral pterygoid muscles and the temporalis tendon.

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